Bring Me The Rhinoceros Fan
===== Awakening the Archive - Tape #21, by Shundo David Haye =====
For whatever reason, there are few talks existing from the summer of 1968. At Tassajara, in the spring and the fall training periods, Suzuki Roshi gave two series of lectures on the Lotus Sutra (and a third one there in the fall of 1969), but between the ceremonies at the end of the practice period in April, and the beginning of the next one in October, only six talks had been listed. Two of them were given on consecutive nights at Esalen, and the first of those had been lightly edited to remove some repetitions and clarifications, something that never happened to the tapes made at Zen Center.
In the process of working through the archive, three small reels (five-inch as opposed to the more commonly used seven-inch reels) came to light with material from the summer at Tassajara. A small portion of one of these (which will be the subject of the next article) had been transcribed previously, but most of the existing tape had been inaudible. These recordings were made by Dan Gourley on what was presumably his own recorder, in the summers of 1968 and 1969; this particular reel has a lot of background noise, and speed issues (most likely caused by failing batteries or a reel dragging on the machine), but is mostly clear.
The dates for them were hard to establish, but this talk appears to be from the end of July, a short while after a visit to Tassajara (p11) by several eminent Zen Teachers - the talks from which, regrettably, seem not to have been recorded. In talks on the other reel that exists from this time, Suzuki Roshi discussed sectarianism in Buddhism, something that Hakuun Yasutani had lectured on, and encouraged his students to focus on the "universal foundation" rather than worry too much about doctrinal differences, even as he emphasized how Zen was different to other schools in its focus on practice.
In this talk he refers to what he said "last night" about intellectual understanding, and reiterates that "what you have understood intellectually is not, you know, the thing itself" (1:34). He goes on to illustrate this point quite playfully, by referring to a number of Zen stories, starting with Nyoko who collected many representations of dragons (as he recounts Kobun Chino as having in his cabin at Tassajara) but was terrified when he came across a real one.
The same analogy - the difference between the representation and the real - lies at the heart of the koan of the rhinoceros fan, which he tells at length, and for the only time that we have any record of. Similarly, although he says he had recently talked about Sekiso, his telling of that story is the only instance we have in the archive. For good measure, he also throws in Dongshan's "Hot and Cold," which he had talked about in the previous lecture, and some of Keizan's instructions on zazen. Perhaps hearing Yasutani talk about koans and shikantaza had put him in the mood for koans.
He reminds his students, as he had the previous summer, that in their monastic work, they should both do their best and not be attached to what they are doing. This continual balancing and fluidity, not getting stuck anywhere, will be their key to understanding these stories, and thus, their practice, and their life: "If you, you know, try to bring real [laughs] rhinoceros fan, you know, you will be scolded. If you don’t, you will be scolded. What will you do? That is the point, you should study." (35:04)
Transcript by PF and WP 1/22 - some amendments by SDH.
Date deduced from references to 'last night' and comments made in talks dated 7/26 and 7/27.
For Rhinoceros Fan koan and the various answers, see Blue Cliff Record, case 91 (also in the Book of Serenity, case 25)
Yanguan Qi’an: 鹽官齊安 [Engan Sai’an]. 750–842, China. Dharma heir of Mazu Daoyi, Nanyue Line. He had an unusual appearance, and Mazu recognized him as a “great vessel.”Taught at Haichang Monastery, Yanguan, Hang Region (Zhejiang). Known as an accomplished teacher of the precepts. The famous kōan of the rhinoceros fan—”If the fan is broken, then bring me the rhinoceros”—is his teaching. His posthumous name is National Teacher Qi’an, 齊安國師 [Seian Kokushi].
For Sekiso's seven through and through:
Book of Serenity Case 96: Kyuho Does Not Acknowledge
Kyuho served Sekiso as his attendant. After Sekiso's passing, the assembly wanted to make their head monk the abbot of the temple. Kyuho would not acknowledge him. He said, "Wait till I examine him. If he understands our late master's spirit and
intention, I will serve him as I served our late master."
So he asked the head monk, "Our late master said,
'Have been totally ceased;
Have been totally extinguished;
[Have become a cool land of desolation;] 
Have had only one awareness for ten thousand years;
Have become cold ashes and a withered tree;
[Have become a fragrant censer in an ancient shrine;]
Have become a vertical stripe of white silk.'
Tell me, what sort of matter did he clarify with this?"
The head monk said, "He clarified the matter of absolute Oneness."
Ho said, "If so, you have not yet understood our late master's spirit."
The head monk said, "Don't you acknowledge me? Pass me incense." He lit the incense and said, "If I had not understood our late master's spirit, I would not be able to pass away while the smoke of this incense rises."
No sooner had he said this than he expired while sitting in zazen. Kyuho caressed his back and said, "Dying while sitting or standing is not impossible. But you could not even dream of our late master's spirit."
: The original text contains five out of the famous "seven Perfecta"
Dongshan's "Hot and Cold"is Blue Cliff Record Case 43.
Keizan Jokin text is Zazen Yojinki (Points to keep in mind when practicing zazen)
The people say, Zen is, you know, is very difficult to understand. Yes, it is difficult, but difficulty is not a kind of difficulty you have in—to understand such a thing. Intellectually, even though the way of thinking we have is not familiar with you, but it is possible to understand intellectually. But what we should know is — what you have understood intellectually is not, you know, the thing itself. Everyone talk about this point, you know. Our world is not perfect.
But as I told you last night, why we—why intellectual understanding is not the thing itself is. Whatever you say, that is not perfect. And if you think, you know, if you cling to some idea, that is already imperfect intellectual—intellectual understanding.
And there are many interesting stories for that. I think you must have found about "What is true dragon?"—this one. I right now, I—this evening I visited Chino Sensei's room, and there were, you know, many dragons [laughs, laughter]. This year he—he said, I have many and many dragons. I thought many and many dragons. So, I thought that he—he is born (in) a dragon's year. But, he said he was born (in) a tiger's year, and I am dragon, and he— [laughs] he is tiger [laughter]. And, so he is my big enemy [laughs, laughter]. And I saw many—many of my enemies in his—in his room. No, many of my friends in his room so, and I feel very good [laughs] To visit is good, because he’s surrounded by my friends [laughs] this year, but I don't know what will happen next year [laughter, laughs]. Don’t give it him any tigers [laughter].
Nyoko —or some people may say Seppo Sensei you know, like dragons very much, you know. The old—whatever you say is— that is not true dragons, you know. And people like dragons very much. Recently, you know, people in the whole world like dragons very much, you know. This is Zen, this is Zen – Zen cosmetic, Zen food [laughs, laughter], Zen diet [laughs]. Everything is Zen right now, you know. Those are all, you know, painted dragons, or antique dragon. If you go to antique shop, you will see many and many dragons. Bronze dragons, or [laughs] then China dragons, or flame (?) of dragons, you know. You will see many and many dragons, but this year if you—if real dragon come [laughs], what will you do [laughs]? Like Nyoko.
And in Blue Cliff Record there are interesting stories. Seian Kokushi the National Zen Master of China called his jisha and said, bring me rhinoceros fan. It is very hot today [laughs], bring me rhinoceros fan. And the waiter [attendant] said, it was broken long time ago, he said. Then, he said, you should bring me the bone of [laughs] fan. He—she—he did not notice—what did he mean by rhinoceros fan. Whatever you do, whatever you observe, whatever the teaching may be, that is, you know, rhinoceros fan. But, what is, you know, true, rhinoceros fan, is very difficult to understand. Whatever the understanding may be, that is not true one. That is just, you know, a picture of—of the rhinoceros fan.
So, on this point there are many, you know, answer by many teachers. The waiter said, that fan has been broken. Ekan—Enkan said, the—if the fan—Enkan is Seian Kokushi, the National Teacher of Tang Dynasty—if the fan has been broken, bring me the rhinoceros and put it in front of me [laughs]. If the fan is broken, you know, bring it me that rhinoceros in front of me. The jisha made no reply here [laughs]. He couldn’t answer. Sorry, couldn’t answer [laughs, laughter]. Discussing this at a later time after Enkan's death, Tosu said that the jisha did not refuse to bring the fan, but as the fan had been destroyed—in the—destroyed. At any rate it was spoiled, but if a spoiled picture of it—of its skin and bones which had—been satisfactory to the old patriarch, the jisha might have fixed it—wash it (?).
Anyway, you know, anyway, whatever it is, it is not real. It is not reality itself. Whatever it is, it is not reality. Whatever you say, it does not work. So—so whatever it is, you know, it is better to bring it to him.
And this point I already explained. “Whatever you say, it is right,” means whatever you say, it is—it is wrong [laughs]. The same thing. So, Dogen Zenji said, you know, there is Right Buddha and Wrong Buddha [laughs]. There is Yes Buddha and No Buddha. Anyway, yes or—Buddha is Buddha, you know. People may say, there is two kinds of Buddha. No, there is—Yes Buddha is the only Buddha, No Buddha is not true Buddha. But Dogen—according to Dogen Zenji there are Yes Buddha and No Buddha. Whatever you said, he is good.
And this kind of story—it—there are many such, you know. When it is very hot, the teacher meet a monk, and monk asks a teacher: It is very hot, is there any place—where there is no hot or no cold. And the—that master said, when it is cold, it is Cold Buddha. When it is hot, it is Hot Buddha. Anyway, it is Buddha [laughs]. So, there is no need to try to go to some other place. And this is a very important point. And this is the point we should sit.
Sekiso, I talked about Sekiso the other night. Sekiso, Sekiso's "Seven through and through." You know, seven through and through. After Sekiso passed away. When—immediately after Sekiso passed away, they have to have—pick successor, a new teacher for them. And the monks wanted to appoint their Shuso—Shuso. You know—you know Shuso? Head of the monks. In the training period there is a Shuso. They wanted to appoint Shuso as his successor. But, Kyuho, he’s also a famous Zen master. Kyuho alone did not agree with this—he didn’t agree. So, that Shuso said, if you don’t agree with—with me, I will show you my practice, you know. Burn incense, you know, right now. Bring me incense right now. And he sits in front of the incense, and he almost passed away [laughs] without saying a word. When he started to sit, his breathing stopped, and he almost died. His practice was so powerful, but Kyuho still did not agree with it [laughs, laughter]. You sit, you know. That is why I don’t agree with it [laughs]. You—you are still sticking it to your practice— power of practice. You should forget all about your practice, and you should be like one of the monks, and you should practice with us in the same way. Forget all about your attainment, Kyuho said, and he couldn’t, you know, take over Sekiso’s place—Sekiso’s seat. The—whatever you do, you know, if you think that is true dragon, or true rhinoceros fan, that is wrong.
How you, you know, attain this kind of freedom is the point. It is not actually attainment even. To pass—to take that freedom—in sitting– or to take that freedom in standing—this kind of practice—powerful as it is, but those are—if you stick to this kind of power that is not, you know, true practice. So Sekiso's last through and through is to be—to be pure white cloth.
In those times in China or in Japan, if you go to the tailor shop, you know, and there they have pure white, long cloth, about thirty feet long, long enough to make, you know, our kimono. Sometime we—we say very, very long, one thousand long—one thousand li —one thousand miles, you know, long. It means that our human life reach continuously from beginning -- beginningless beginning, and endless end. This is pure cloth. But we shouldn’t even to stick to it [laughs] —how you attain—how you understand this point is the point of study.
Actually, in this monastery everyone has its own position. We should be very faithful to our work which was given to you. But we should not, you know, compare your position to the other position. Or you should not say my position is good or bad. And you should do your best in your work, but at the same time, you should not be attached to your position. If, you know, in next training period we don’t know who will have what kind of positions. But we should, you know, take over willingly someone’s position, and we should do our best, without any, you know, problem in your mind, without feeling—without having any feelings of good and bad [laughs]. This kind of thing is what we are talking about actually. Not how—how—how to, you know. For instance, if I, you know, if I was—was told to work in the kitchen [laughs], I don’t know how I feel, but we should willingly, you know, work, whatever the position may be. If you, you know, if you can do that, then you may say, whatever you do, that is Buddha’s activity.
Even though you give a wonderful lecture from the old book, if you have—if you are involved in the idea of good lecture or bad lecture, you know, then this—the lecture I’m giving you is not a true lecture. So, as long as you have some discrimination about your condition or about what you think, actually you are not observing the things as it is.
So, true understanding is matter of intellectual understanding and matter of practice, you know. So, just by intellectual understanding you cannot figure out what do we mean. Only when you are touched by—you are touched by—with what you have and how you are. The intellectual understand— interpretation of the reality will —will accord with your practice. So, only by your practice, your intellectual understanding will work. As long as you are always involved in some intellectual understanding, that is not possible.
Sekiso, even if he had wanted to save that fan, it was broken and was no longer to be found. How could he—could he take it? You know, even though he wanted, it is not something to give—to hand it or to give. So, even though—and if you want to give it or if you want to take it, that is already broken fan [laughs]. Do you understand? It is already. The real fan is not something which can be given. So, if you want to give it to him, that is already true fan—broken one. And the Kyozan — Shifuku, disciple of Kyozan, drew a large circle in the air, you know, and wrote a character, you know, of cow or a bull. [Laughs] And Setcho, who put appreciatory words to Blue Cliff Record said, why didn’t you, you know, bring a bull sooner? [Laughs] It is too late, he said, you know. Before he— he bring it to him, it was perfect, you know. After —because he brought it already here, you know, so, and put it here, you know, like this, it is too late. Why don’t [laughs] you bring it sooner? But it is not possible to bring it sooner. And if he bring it, you know, any time, sooner or later it doesn’t matter. If he bring it to him—if he—if he, you know, make circle and—instead of rhinoceros, you know, a horse a dog or a cow or bull, it doesn’t matter, you know. Whatever it is, if he brings to him, “But that’s too late,” you know [laughs]. Before he brings it, it was all right. Because he brought it [laughs], it was already wrong. So, [laughs] Setcho who puts comments— not commentary, but appreciatory words to it said, “Why didn’t you bring it sooner?” Bring it sooner [laughs, laughter]. This is very good appreciatory words: Why didn’t you bring it sooner? [Laughs.] Even though he had brought it sooner, he would say, you still don’t say: "It is too late [laughs]. Why [laughs] didn’t you bring it sooner?" [Laughs] What will you do? If you bring it [laughs], you’ll be scolded, "Why didn’t you? You are too late!" [Laughter.] If you, you know, try to bring real [laughs] rhinoceros fan, you know, you will be scolded. If you don’t, you will be scolded. What will you do? That is the point, you should study.
And this is also how we practice zazen. This is the—Keizan Zenji’s instructions. [Aside] Hmm, who knows where it is?
[One minute pause]
Very interesting. [Laughter, laughs.] "Usually, it may be better to put—when you practice zazen, he says to put your mind on your left-hand side, you know." Right hand, left hand, you—you know, you put your hands like this. So, you keep it—put your mind on here, so that your mind does not wandering about. And—but if you sit for a long time your mind will not wander about. And you should sometime—or you should also, beside sitting, study a sutra or stories of various patriarchs and teachers.
And explanations to—to this instruction by Nishiari Zenji, and this is also interesting. "What do you—do we mean by to study old scriptures? What do we mean by stopping your—resting your mind? In what kind of state of mind is the mind which is completely rest? And we say, to stop your mind, and don’t be concerned about it—things we are doing in usual time, but what actually does it mean?
And we say, you should not try to be friendly or try to have approach to influential people, like a king or minister. But what actually does it mean? Even though you do not do visit them, if you want something from them, actually you are trying to be friendly with them [laughter.] If you are afraid of him, you know, afraid of their power, actually you are visiting them [laughs]. If your mind is not in your belly, it means that you are visiting a king or a minister, and you are flattering to them. What does it—what does it actually mean when you say, you do not—you should not want to be friendly with them?"
And, you know, and Keizan Zenji’s instructions—next instruction is: "Don’t read too many books [laughs]. Don’t read too many books. Or do not listen too many lecture [laughs, laughter]. If you listen to too many lectures, a lecture will cause your restless mind [laughs]. It will make a disturbance of your practice.
And you do not strive to practice big, big ceremonies [laughs]. Or you do not try to build a big temple. Even though it is good thing, it will—if you are involved in it too much it will be the obstacle. [Some words missing?] be interested in giving lecture. If you always give lectures, your mind will be, you know, will not be calm.
Do not try to have too many disciples [laughs] or too many monks. If you have too many disciple or monks, your mind will not feel calm." And commentary of Nishiari Zenji to it, he referred to the Buddha say(ing), if many birds come to a tree—too many birds come to a tree, the tree will—will die, Buddha said. So, don’t try to have too many disciples or too many monks.
"And you should not try to study so many things. And you shouldn’t—not learn—you should not try to know too many things. One by one, you should pract—you should study carefully, spending as—as much time as you can. The place where there is blue mountain is—will be the place you practice kinhin, and by the stream and under tree, you can practice zazen. You should always put the transiency of the world in your mind. And you should encourage true way-seeking mind."
Here, you know, also, we cannot, you know, understand this kind of instruction literally [laughs]. It is also a rhinoceros fan [laughs]. Tentatively, you know, it suggest this kind of thing, but we should know what does he mean actually.
And mostly, you know, people can—has some tendency, you know, and most tendencies we have is not good ones [laughs, laughter]. That is why [laughs] he is, you know, he refers to all those things, but if he—if we follow this kind of teaching there is not much danger in our practice. This is the best way, you know [laughs].
Before someone—someone told me, you know, if you want to—if you want to have a cup of coffee, you know, right now, it is a time to—for you to have it [laughs, laughter]. That sound good [laughs, laughter], not sorry [laughs, laughter], not you. Someone, you know, so I said, better not, you know [laughter]. And someone said, that is very good decision [laughs, laughter]. He was very much interested in what he said, very good decision. No other dialog [laughs, laughter]. Oh, no, not good. He did say, a good decision. He said, very easy, this decision. Is there difficulty? This is very good, I thought, easy decision. It is not so difficult, you know. It is very easy way. But I don’t mean that I cannot have a cup of coffee, if there is, you know [laughs]. If there is, maybe better than to throw it away (?) so, instead of in the creek (?) [laughs]. I can take it, you know [laughs, laughter]. But this is very difficult way. It may be good, but not so easy way. So, to refuse it, very easy way.
And those instructions is—out of his mercy he gave us this kind of instructions. But if we cling to this kind of instructions and say—and criticize someone who built a temple, you know, that is also wrong, because it leads to this kind of teaching. To observe teachings like this is, you know, pretty difficult. How to observe this kind of teaching is the actual practice, you know. For beginners it may be better to refuse it. No, this is not the time we—we monks should not take a cup of coffee [laughs]. For the beginner it is good, but if we always insist our rules in that way, you know, like a horse, you know, [maybe demonstrating blinkers - laughs, laughter] like someone who is carrying a big board on his shoulder, you know, without seeing the other side. This is Hinayana way [laughs, laughter - some words lost in the laughter]. You will take a cup of coffee—that is no good! If you don’t, that is Hinayana way [laughter]. Now, what do we do? [Laughter.] Say something [laughter]. So, if you say something, I hit it; if you don’t, I will hit it [laughter, laughs].
This is why people say Zen is, you know, very predictable [laughs] when the ??? is predictable. It is hard to understand, but, you know, because you try to understand it, it is hard [laughs]. If you don’t, it is not so—so hard. If you, you know, live in monastery, and if you live with students, and if you are trying to, you know, figure out where should I put my fingers (?), you know. Oh, oh this is not good. This way and that way, soon you can, you know, put it in right place. I think, oh no [laughs]. Not like this. Oh [laughs, laughter]. If you try many times, you will understand how you put it. This is Zen [laughs].
If you try to describe, you know, how you put it on—on your finger, you must write a book about it [laughter]. How to put it. You should describe the shape of the kotsu and [laughs] and, you know, you should weigh it, each part of the staff. And it takes a long, long time to [laughs] find out where you should put your fingers (?). But without clinging to this kind of, you know, instruction, if you try many and many times, you can do it.
No one—you know if the stone is heavy and with its weight—is it very light? So, how do you know it? Do you weigh each stone [laughs] by a scale? You don’t, you know, you—you pick up. When you pick up stone, you, you know, you are prepare for some certain weight. And when you pick up cotton, you know, you don’t try to use so many power. And you—you can tell how. You don’t know how, you know, how many pounds it weighs. But you know—you know how much power is necessary for lifting the stone. If you see a stone, you will—you work in appropriate, you know, power—by your appropriate power. So, if you, you know—if someone put, you know, paper basket— [gap in tape here] …strong power. And if it is basket [laughs, laughter].
This is, you know, is Zen -- [possible gap in tape here] -- goes on about instructions. So, whether it is good or bad, you know, you try your best. And your friend or teacher knows, you know, what kind of experience you have in your practice, and listens (?), so we—you will get very accurate and appropriate helpful instructions. So anyway, you should do that, but it does not mean to force something—actually this is the best way to study Zen, every day.
Do you have some questions? We have five minutes more. Hai.
Student A: How is it possible to stand on the ground? [Suzuki laughs.] and be unsupported? No support.
SR: No support.
Student A: And still stay on the ground?
SR: Uhm hm, you can’t do that.
[Tape turned over]
SR: How to stand up from the ground it isn’t very clear, you know. To bring him—to bring him a rhinoceros fan, you know. It is not possible. But actually, people think it is possible. Here there is big mistake. But every one of us is—should give him something, even though broken one, or not so good, or old or new, or small or big. Anyway, if it is hot [laughs], you may help him—you should help him, give him something. That is actually what we are doing. We should know that, you know. And when you know this point through and through, you have no—actually you are standing on the, not firm but very appropriate, place. You found your place already.
In short, we should know what we are doing, first of all—what everyone of us are doing, and we should make our best effort. That is how you stand on the—when you—how you find the right place for you—right functions for you. Or right—not function, but—and how you should work. That is the most important thing. Okay? Do you understand? [Laughs] So don’t worry [laughs]. Everyone is doing the same thing [laughter]. So, everyone, all of them are your friend, your good friends. They doesn’t look like so, but actually it is so.
[Chant beings: (everyone):
Negawakuwa ....then 4 vows in Japanese and English.
Time drum and bell: 9 drum, 3 densho.
Ending zazen bell.]